The hottest power system reform has been advancing

2022-08-09
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The reform of the power system has been advancing all the way, and the construction of the power market has been advancing in depth.

for a long time, the strategic characteristics of energy have been more emphasized, the industry competition is insufficient, the price is set by the government, and its general commodity attribute has been ignored. The function of the market to perceive "temperature" and allocate resources is difficult to play, which leads to the energy price market can not reflect the supply and demand relationship of the energy product market in a timely and accurate manner The degree of scarcity and its impact on the environment, as well as the incentives and constraints on investors, operators and consumers, will inevitably fail. To turn around, the market must have the conditions to play a role, and the government must also accurately position itself

In this sense, the energy system not only supports but also restricts the production, distribution and consumption of energy. The implementation of the energy system revolution is to provide the foundation and guarantee for the whole energy revolution

nowadays, the institutional revolution in China's energy sector is constantly advancing in depth, the market system is gradually improving, the government functions are changing day by day, and the path of reform is becoming more and more solid and broader

new combination, new market, new main body

the "top cow" problem of coal enterprises and power enterprises has a long history. Their profits fluctuate one after another, coupled with their respective diversified operations, resulting in repeated investment and scattered advantages. As an important main body in the energy market, the competitive efficiency has also been affected, so the combination of coal and electricity is expected

on the occasion of this year's "Tanabata" Valentine's day, Shenhua Group, the world's largest coal supplier, and Guodian group, one of the five major power generation groups, merged and reorganized into National Energy Investment Group Co., Ltd. this state-owned coal and power group with total assets of nearly 1.8 trillion yuan was born, and its volume is also among the top energy enterprises in the world

Hu Chi, a researcher at the research center of SASAC, believes that at the moment of overcapacity in coal and electricity, the reorganization of coal enterprises and power enterprises meets the needs of supply side structural reform, and the merger and reorganization will improve industry concentration and competitive efficiency

factors such as the parting surface, gate situation and size of the mold directly affect the material flow direction, density distribution, pressure maintaining and feeding effect and molding time

of course, the process may also face several major difficulties, such as business integration, headquarters integration, listed company integration, cultural integration and so on. It is the mission of the new company to truly realize the amplification of advantages, the complementarity of short boards, and the realization of the inequality calculus of "1+1 2", It will also provide references and templates for subsequent similar reorganization

the new round of power system reform has been advancing all the way since the promulgation of the power reform No. 9 document. On March 1st, 2016, Beijing and Guangzhou power trading centers were established respectively. The two national power trading centers are responsible for the construction and operation of cross regional and cross provincial power markets, which not only adjust the surplus and shortage, but also promote the consumption of clean energy. The relevant person in charge of the national development and Reform Commission said that this is a key step to deepen the reform of the power system and speed up the construction of the power market, marking that China's power industry has entered the full implementation stage of opening up competitive links and realizing market-oriented transactions

in the past, the "unified purchase and sale" mode was implemented in power trading. Power plants can only sell electricity to power enterprises, and power customers can only buy electricity from power enterprises, and the price is also set by government departments. The power trading center has brought changes, provided places and platforms, and achieved initial success in the experiment of controllable full biodegradable film farmland utilization, so that power plants, power selling companies, and large industrial and commercial enterprises using electricity can directly participate in power trading, and the competition among multiple market entities can make prices more appropriately reflect the relationship between supply and demand

the first market-oriented trans regional and trans provincial transaction carried out by Beijing power trading center is the trans regional power user transaction of Yindong DC. 30 power users from Shandong, three supporting enterprises of Yindong DC and 824 wind, light and thermal power enterprises in Shaanxi, Gansu, Ningxia and Qinghai actively participated in the transaction. Both parties offered their own prices. The intersection of the two price curves of supply and demand was the equilibrium price, and the total trading electricity was 9billion kwh, After calculation, the power purchase cost will be reduced by 540million yuan

in addition, the pilot of incremental distribution business reform has been implemented, eight pilot projects for the construction of power spot market are being promoted, and the mechanism of market competition on the selling side has also been preliminarily established. These changes have built the platform structure of the power market from scratch, reduced government intervention in the market, and created preconditions for the market mechanism to play a decisive role in the allocation of energy resources

turn to the oil and gas industry, which leads the trend in the reform of mixed ownership of state-owned enterprises

it has become a habit for many people to take a box of drinks and buy a few packages of snacks from the convenience store of the gas station every time they refuel their car. The increasingly abundant goods, convenient services and flexible online and offline modes inside bring consumers a good experience, which in turn promotes the sales of oil products. In today's situation, the mixed transformation of the oil sales business sector launched by Sinopec in 2014 is indispensable

in order to establish a modern enterprise system and mobilize the vitality of enterprises, Sinopec actively introduced social capital to carry out mixed reform. After several rounds of screening, negotiation and final delivery, Sinopec Sales Company transferred 29.58% equity to 25 external investors such as RT mart, Fosun and AirMedia, with a total consideration of 105.044 billion yuan

restructuring and capital introduction have realized the preservation and appreciation of state-owned assets, introduced social capital, and also introduced new ideas and new vitality. In 2016, the overall revenue of the sales company reached 1052.9 billion yuan, with a profit of 32.2 billion yuan. While consolidating the traditional oil and gas sales business, the non oil emerging business of the sales company entered a stage of rapid growth, and the transaction volume surged from 13.3 billion yuan in 2013 to 35.1 billion yuan in 2016. This year, 10% of the shares of the sales company are expected to be listed overseas, which will undoubtedly bring more development power and capital to Sinopec

it is reported that oil and gas enterprises are still the focus of the third batch of pilot list of mixed reform of state-owned enterprises to be released by the national development and Reform Commission. After completing the first process of the mixed reform, Sinopec revealed that it was promoting the mixed reform in geothermal, pipeline and other business sectors, while PetroChina planned to complete the corporate reform by the end of November

the killer mace of the mid-term examination

a mature market-oriented energy mechanism cannot be separated from the norms and support of the government. Streamlining administration and delegating power is the most direct measure to stimulate the creative vitality of the market and society, so it is regarded as the "spearhead" and "first hand" of comprehensively deepening reform. The same is true in the energy sector

once upon a time, government departments agreed to carry out the approval of the preliminary work of the project, commonly known as "roadblocks", which is the prerequisite for the launch of energy projects. Due to the long approval chain, many links and centralized power, people who run "roadblocks" often ridicule themselves as "copper heads, iron mouths and Scud legs". This has become an epitome of the energy industry's "emphasis on approval and light supervision", and the rapid expansion of lithium-ion cathode material production capacity is an urgent problem to be solved in streamlining administration and delegating power

the management reform of distributed photovoltaic is an example. Based on the "eight national regulations" of photovoltaic in 2013, the Interim Measures for the administration of distributed generation clearly encourages all kinds of power users to invest in the construction and operation of distributed generation projects, and the business license is exempted. In other words, small power stations for household use similar to distributed power generation no longer need "roadblocks". When building distributed power generation projects, residents only need to apply to the local power supply department. After the field survey, the power supply department will formulate an access plan for the household separately, and provide each household with more than two electricity meters. Residents can earn electricity fees for their own use and surplus electricity without delay, Simple procedures have also inspired more residents to turn their roofs into their own "generators" and "small banks"

streamlining administration and delegating power has been on the way. The so-called "release" is to subtract. Pushing forward the reform of administrative examination and approval also means reducing the power and interests of the management department, which is a "knife" to itself, but the action should not be hesitant. Over the past five years, the national energy administration has canceled 22 and 38 sub items of administrative approval projects, including the verification of decentralized power market share, the issuance of coal production licenses, and the approval of natural gas commodity volume distribution plans, all non administrative approval items have been canceled, and intermediary services have been cleaned up and standardized; Through the publication of the public catalogue of administrative examination and approval matters of the national energy administration, a "list of powers" was published, and "institutional rationality" was used to curb "willfulness of power"

those who should not be managed should be "put away", and those who should be managed should be resolutely "managed". After a substantial reduction in approval, more forces need to be allocated to in and after event supervision, which is a major change in the way of government management, which is more difficult and demanding

in the past, the extensive utilization of traditional fossil energy has caused pollution to the environment and has great negative externalities. Therefore, the root of environmental problems lies in energy. One of the most concentrated reflections is the haze that affects people's happiness index

in 2013, the State Council issued the action plan for the prevention and control of air pollution, which was called the "ten articles of the atmosphere" because it proposed 10 articles and 35 key tasks and measures, which clearly required that by 2017, the PM10 concentration of inhalable particles in cities at and above the Prefecture Level nationwide would be reduced by more than 10% compared with that in 2012; The PM2.5 concentration of fine particles in Beijing Tianjin Hebei, Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta and other regions decreased by about 25%, 20% and 15% respectively, of which the average annual concentration of PM2.5 in Beijing was controlled at about 60 micrograms/cubic meter

the goal has been clear, but from "know" to "get", there is still "do" in the middle. Supervising and urging everyone to "do it" is just an important work of government departments

during the ten days in June 2014, drones often flew over Hebei, Shanxi and Inner Mongolia. Their mission was to carry out environmental law enforcement and inspection operations. In order to implement the "ten articles on the atmosphere", eight departments of the State Council jointly launched the "special action to rectify illegal sewage discharge enterprises and ensure the health and environmental protection of the masses". This is the first battle, and also the first time that unmanned aerial vehicles are used to carry out high-altitude monitoring of enterprises with thermal infrared cameras to identify the types of enterprises and the basic situation of the construction and operation of pollution control facilities. The action inspected 254 enterprises and found that 64 enterprises suspected of having environmental problems. The main problems were excessive emission of smoke and dust, serious unorganized emission of smoke and dust, abnormal operation of desulfurization facilities and wastewater treatment facilities, etc. In addition, some small earth workshops hidden in the mountains were also found. Then, for these clues, the Ministry of environmental protection organized the North China Inspection Center to carry out ground inspections, carry out on-site verification one by one, and urge local governments to investigate and rectify in place

although the "ten atmosphere articles" will end this year, it is at best a "mid-term examination", because such supervision and implementation has become the norm. According to reports, the Ministry of environmental protection will continue to carry out mobile and acupoint type special inspections to form a long-term mechanism after completing the first round of environmental protection inspectors in 31 provinces, autonomous regions and cities and holding tens of thousands of people accountable

the more basic function is to establish and improve the legal system. The newly revised "environmental protection law" was implemented on January 1st, 2015, which is called "the strictest in history". It not only adds mandatory means such as administrative detention and seizure, but also for Laolai enterprises that refuse to correct, according to the provisions of the new environmental protection law, relevant departments can impose daily cumulative fines on enterprises without capping

after there is a law to follow, the key is to enforce the law strictly. The new environmental protection law "says nothing". In 2016, there were 974 cases of daily continuous punishment, 9622 cases of closure and detention, 5211 cases of production restriction and shutdown, and 3968 cases of administrative detention

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